如何测量 3D 角度和角度

2023-07-03 18:09

How to measure 3D angles and angularity

如何测量 3D 角度(三维角度)倾斜度

Even in hard-to-reach spaces (inside tubes, bores, slots, etc.)

即使在难以到达的空间(内管、孔、窄缝等)

Why angles matter

为什么角度很重要

Angle and angularity measurements are key aspect of geometrical dimensioning and tolerancing (GD&T) of industrial parts. Correct angles help ensure that assemblies function as intended.

角度和角度测量是工业零件几何尺寸和公差 (GD&T) 的关键方面。正确的角度有助于确保组装功能符合预期

Example 1: bevel angles on cutting tools contribute to their efficacy

示例 1:切削刀具的斜角有助于提高其功效

Example 2: angles of mating surfaces determine whether the surfaces will fit together and whether a tight seal is achieved

示例 2:配合面的角度决定了表面是否会配合在一起以及是否实现了紧密密封

Example 3: the included angle of a drilled rivet countersink in aircraft assembly is one of several aspects determining whether the head of the installed rivet will be flush with the aircraft surface to minimize unnecessary aerodynamic drag (see diagram).

示例 3:飞机装配中钻孔铆钉埋头孔的夹角是确定安装的铆钉头部是否与飞机表面齐平以最大程度减少不必要的空气阻力的几个方面之一(见图)。

Versatility of angle measurement with Novacam technology

使用 Novacam 技术进行角度测量的多功能性

Novacam 3D metrology systems
measure angles and angularity in a range of industries.
The systems scan surfaces in a non-contact manner, with micron precision, and at up to 100,000 3D points per second. Thanks to a wide selection of sensor probe models, the systems are versatile enough to measure angles on outside surfaces as well as on surfaces inside tight spaces such as tubes, bores, or slots.

Novacam 3D 计量系统测量一系列行业的角度和倾斜度。该系统以非接触方式扫描表面,精度达微米级,每秒可扫描多达 100,000 个 3D 点。得益于广泛的传感器探头型号选择,这些系统具有足够的通用性,可以测量外表面以及狭窄空间内表面(例如管、孔或窄缝)的角度。

Example where included angle is crucial: in aircraft assembly, drilled rivet countersinks must accommodate rivet heads perfectly to eliminate unnecessary aerodynamic drag.

夹角至关重要的示例:在飞机装配中,钻孔铆钉埋头孔必须完美适应铆钉头,以消除不必要的空气阻力

5 examples of angle measurement applications

5个角度测量应用示例

The samples below were scanned with Microcam 3D metrology systems. We used industry standard GD&T data analysis software PolyWorks InspectorTM
for subsequent 3D data analysis including angle measurements.

下面的样品是用 Microcam 3D 计量系统扫描的。我们使用行业标准的 GD&T 数据分析软件 PolyWorks Inspector
TM
进行后续的 3D 数据分析,包括角度测量。


Chamfer angles in bores

1) 孔中的倒角

Component with chamfered bores.
Two of the bores have a chamfer on the outer edge as well as halfway down the inside diameter.

带倒角孔的件。其中两个孔的外缘和内径的中途都有一个倒角。

Angle measurements: a) included angle of chamfer on the outer edge and b) angle between inside chamfer (ledge) and bore walls.

角度测量:a) 外边缘倒角的夹角和 b) 内倒角(壁架)和孔壁之间的角度。

Measured on the inside with
BoreInspect.

使用BoreInspect在内部测量

Angles of rivet holes and countersinks

2)铆钉孔与埋头孔的角度

Aerospace rivet hole

航天铆钉孔

Angle measurements inside a drilled rivet hole: a) included angle of the countersink (100.872º), b) angle between the countersink and rivet hole (125.087º), and c) angle between the countersink axis and the rivet hole axis (180-179.007 = 0.993º)

钻铆钉孔内的角度测量值:a) 埋头孔的夹角 (100.872º),b) 埋头孔与铆钉孔之间的角度 (125.087º),以及 c) 埋头孔轴线与铆钉孔轴线之间的角度 (180- 179.007 = 0.993º)

Measured on the inside with
BoreInspect.

使用BoreInspect在内部测量

Angles along the ID profile of a rifled barrel

3) 膛线枪管内径方向的角度

Inside diameter of a rifled bore (45 cm long, ID ≈ 4 mm). Rifling lands and grooves are machined along the bore length.

膛线孔的内径(长 45 厘米,ID ≈ 4 毫米)。膛线刃带和凹槽沿孔径加工。

Angle measurements inside rifled bore: flank angles, i.e. angles of rifling groove walls

膛线内的角度测量:侧角,即膛线槽壁的角度

Measured on the inside with
TubeInspect.

使用TubeInspect在内部测量

盲孔锥底夹角

4) Included angle of a conical bottom of a blind hole

Automotive fuel injector nozzle (37 mm long, ID ≈ 3.8 mm)

汽车燃油喷射器喷嘴(37 毫米长,ID ≈ 3.8 毫米)

Angle measurement of a blind hole bottom: cone angle of fuel injector nozzle tip

盲孔底角测量:喷油器喷嘴尖锥角

Measured from above with
SurfaceInspect.

使用SurfaceInspect从上面测量

Angles of bevels on high-precision cutting tools

5)高精度刀具的斜角

Hypodermic needle tip

皮下注射针尖

Slope angle measurements of secondary bevels on a hypodermic needle lancet

皮下针刺血针上二次斜面的倾斜角测量

Measured with
SurfaceInspect.

用表面检查测量。

Other recently performed angle measurements:

最近进行的其他角度测量方法:

Angularity of bearing surfaces

轴承表面的倾斜度

Incident angle of cooling holes
on turbine blades

涡轮叶片上冷却孔的入射角

Support for automation

支持自动化

With Novacam systems, measurements and data analysis may be fully automated and integrated in inline production lines. Read about the many
advantages of the underlying technology.

使用Novacam系统,测量和数据分析可以完全自动化,并集成在在线生产线中。阅读了解更多的线下技术优点。


文件:AN-THICKNESS-1.22021-06-03

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