测量难以到达空间内径的圆周粗糙度

2023-07-03 18:08

Measuring circumferential roughness on inside diameters of hard-to-reach spaces

测量难以到达空间内径的圆周粗糙度

Our
previous roughness measurement article
presented a method for measuring
linear (axial) roughness
in hard-to-reach spaces such as tubes, bores, or narrow grooves.

我们之前的粗糙度测量文章介绍了一种在难以到达的空间(例如管、孔或窄槽)中测量线性(轴向)粗糙度的方法。

But what if you need to measure roughness
around the circumference
of a hard-to-reach space?
This capability is often required in the manufacture of high-precision parts where ID surface finish affects part performance.

但是,如果您需要测量难以到达的空间周围的粗糙度怎么办?在ID表面光洁度影响零件性能的高精度零件的制造中通常需要这种功能。

Example

例子

Sealing surfaces in the automotive or aerospace industries are prime examples.
Take for instance the valve seat of an engine fuel injector.
Excessive circumferential roughness on the valve seat ID will affect the seal, cause gas leakage, impact engine efficiency, and ultimately pose a serious risk to safety. Therefore, measuring and controlling roughness inside this component is non-negotiable.

汽车或航空航天工业中的密封面就是最好的例子。以发动机燃油喷油器的阀座为例。阀座内径圆周粗糙度过大会影响密封,造成气体泄漏,影响发动机效率,最终造成严重的安全隐患。因此,测量和控制该部件内部的粗糙度是不可协商的。

With Novacam non-contact 3D metrology systems, surface roughness measurements may be obtained on linear or circular profiles of inside diameters.

使用 Novacam 非接触式3D测量系统,可以在内径的线性或圆形轮廓上获得表面粗糙度测量值。

Let’s clarify – what do we mean by roughness?

让我们说明一下——粗糙度是什么意思?

The definition of what constitutes “roughness” as a surface quality parameter varies between sectors and companies.
For circumferential roughness measurements, clients often use the term “roughness” to describe one or more of the following 4 surface quality aspects:

作为表面质量参数的粗糙度定义因行业和公司而异。对于圆周粗糙度测量,客户通常使用术语粗糙度来描述以下4个表面质量方面中的一个或多个方面

Surface roughness.
This is the most restrictive sense of the term “roughness”. It may be described as high-frequency / short-wavelength deviations from the nominal measured surface.

表面粗糙度。这是术语粗糙度最严格的含义。它可以描述为与标称测量表面的高频/短波偏差。

Surface roughness

表面粗糙度

Surface waviness. Roughness and waviness are often found together but measured separately. Note that there is no universal size limit between waviness and roughness; rather the limit depends on the sector and type of application.

2. 表面波度。粗糙度和波度通常一起发现,但分开测量。请注意,波度和粗糙度之间没有通用的尺寸限制;相反,限制取决于应用程序的行业和类型。

Surface waviness vs. roughness

Surface defects
on the ID circumference, such as scratches, corrosion, or pitting

3. 内径圆周上的表面缺陷,例如划痕、腐蚀或点蚀

4. Chatter, meaning lobing that is typically created by vibrations between a machining tool (such as a CNC, grinder, mill, or drill) and a part during manufacture or finishing.

4. 颤振在制造或精加工过程中,加工工具(例如 CNC、磨床、铣床或钻头)与零件之间的振动通常会产生滚边

Examples of chatter analysis from ID of automotive shafts (measured and analyzed by Novacam 3D metrology systems)

汽车轴内径的颤振分析示例(由 Novacam 3D 测量系统测量和分析)

Aspect #1, i.e., “surface roughness”, is the subject of this article.

1方面,即表面粗糙度,是本文的主题。

However, let’s keep to the subject matter – from here on this article addresses surface roughness measurement only.

但是,让我们继续讨论主题——从这里开始,本文仅讨论表面粗糙度测量。

As an aside, note that regardless of the roughness definition,
Novacam systems are able to measure all the above surface aspects
-including roughness, waviness,
dimensions,
chatter, and defects.
This is because all the necessary 3D profile data is acquired in the same scan. The acquired data points are combined to form a 3D point cloud from which all the above roughness aspects are easily analyzed.

另外,请注意,无论粗糙度定义如何,Novacam 系统都能够测量上述表面的所有方面- 包括粗糙度、波度、尺寸颤振和缺陷。这是因为所有必要的 3D 轮廓数据都是在同一次扫描中采集的。采集的数据点组合形成 3D 点云,从中可以轻松分析上述所有粗糙度方面。

Two systems for circumferential roughness

圆周粗糙度的两个系统

Novacam manufactures two non-contact 3D metrology systems that measure both axial and circumferential roughness on inside diameters:

Novacam 生产两种非接触式 3D 计量系统,可测量内径的轴向和圆周粗糙度:

BOREINSPECT.
The
BOREINSPECT 3D metrology system
scans IDs with a small-diameter rotational probe. The side-looking scanning probe traces linear, circular or spiral paths through the inside diameter (ID).

钻孔检查。BOREINSPECT
3D 计量系统使用小直径旋转探头扫描 ID。侧视扫描探头通过内径 (ID) 追踪线性、圆形或螺旋路径。

The system offers both axial and circumferential roughness measurements.

该系统提供轴向和圆周粗糙度测量。

Novacam BOREINSPECT system scans ID surfaces with a rotational scanning probe

Novacam BOREINSPECT 系统使用旋转扫描探头扫描 ID 表面

TUBEINSPECT.
The
TUBEINSPECT 3D metrology system
measures IDs by rotating the measured (typically tubular) part on a precision stage while a small-diameter side-looking scanning probe advances into the tube ID.

管检查。TUBEINSPECT
3D计量系统通过在精密平台上旋转被测量(通常是管状)零件来测量内径,同时小直径侧视扫描探头进入管内径。

Like the BoreInspect, the TubeInspect obtains linear, circular or spiral profiles of the ID.

与 BoreInspect 一样,TubeInspect 可以获取内径的线性、圆形或螺旋轮廓。

Additionally, the TubeInspect is able to measure axial and circumferential profiles on the outside (OD) of the same tubular part.

此外,TubeInspect能够测量同一管状部件外部 (OD) 的轴向和圆周轮廓。

The TUBEINSPECT system rotates the measured (typically tubular) part to scan its ID and/or the OD.

TUBEINSPECT 系统旋转被测(通常为管状)零件以扫描其内径和/或外径。

Roughness parameters calculated from acquired profiles

根据获取的轮廓计算的粗糙度参数

The BOREINSPECT and TUBEINSPECT systems both acquire profiles in a point-by-point manner at the rate of up to 100,000 3D point measurements per second.
The user chooses whether the scan paths are linear, circular or spiral.

BOREINSPECT 和 TUBEINSPECT 系统都以每秒高达10万个3D点测量的速度逐点获取剖面。用户可以选择扫描路径是线性的、圆形的还是螺旋形的。

The obtained data is used to calculate
2D roughness parameters
such as average roughness (Ra), mean roughness depth (Rz), maximum valley depth (Rv), maximum peak height (Rp), maximum height (distance from highest peak to lowest valley)(Rt), root mean square roughness (Rq), skewness (Rsk), and kurtosis (Rku).

获得的数据用于计算2D粗糙度参数,如平均粗糙度(Ra)、平均粗糙度深度(Rz)、最大谷深(Rv)、最大峰高(Rp)、最大高度(最高峰到最低谷的距离) (Rt)均方根粗糙度 (Rq)、偏度 (Rsk) 和峰度 (Rku)。

Example of 2D surface roughness measurements: Ra, Rz, Rq, Rp, Rv, Rt

2D表面粗糙度测量示例:Ra、Rz、Rq、Rp、Rv、Rt

Range of roughness measured

测量粗糙度范围

The BOREINSPECT and TUBEINSPECT
systems measure
ID roughness as small as 0.05 μm (2.0 μin).
To acquire this very fine roughness, it is important to:

BOREINSPECT和TUBEINSPECT系统可测量小至 0.05 μm(2.0 μin)的内径粗糙度。要获得这种非常精细的粗糙度,重要的是:

Configure the system with MICROCAM-3D interferometer,

使用MICROCAM-3D干涉仪配置系统,

Select a probe with sufficiently small spot size,

选择光斑尺寸足够小的探头,

Set the rotation speed of the probe (in the case of BOREINSPECT) or the tubular part (in the case of TUBEINSPECT) to be slower than for acquiring dimensional measurements.

将探头(在BOREINSPECT的情况下)或管状部件(在TUBEINSPECT的情况下)的旋转速度设置为比获取尺寸测量值慢。

For measuring higher roughness values, the above guidelines may be relaxed.

对于测量更高的粗糙度值,上述准则可以放宽。

Examples of roughness measurement profile. Surface form and waviness has been filtered out.

粗糙度测量轮廓的示例。表面形状和波度已经被过滤掉。

Benefits to manufacturers

对制造商的好处

The systems offer many benefits:

该系统提供了许多好处:

Micron-precision non-contact measurements

微米级精度非接触式测量

Ability to measure roughness, dimensions, chatter and defects on the ID – all with the same probe

能够测量内径上的粗糙度、尺寸、颤振和缺陷——所有这些都使用相同的探头

Linear, circular or spiral profiles of the ID

内径的线性、圆形或螺旋轮廓

Support for full automation of measurements and reporting

支持测量和报告的完全自动化

Faster acquisition than with contact probes or with manual inspection techniques such as
use of replicas

比使用接触式探头或使用复制品等手动检查技术更快地采集数据

Better measurement coverage of
high-aspect-ratio features
(e.g. corners of O-ring grooves, undercuts, steps, channels, cross-holes, splines, threads) than triangulation technology or contact profilometers thanks to collinear scanning (see diagram)

由于共线扫描(见图),与三角测量技术或接触式轮廓仪相比,高纵横比特征(例如O形环槽的拐角、底切、阶梯、通道、交叉孔、花键、螺纹)的测量范围更广(见图

Suitability for both lab and shop-floor environments

适用于实验室和车间环境

Option to integrate with robots, precision stages, or online inspection stations.

可选择与机器人精密平台或在线检测站集成。

Novacam optical probes scan in a collinear manner, meaning that the outgoing and reflected beam travels along the same axis. This means that for scanning high-aspect-ratio features, there is no or minimal occlusion of corners compared to scanning with triangulation technologies.

Novacam 光学探头以共线方式扫描,这意味着发射光束和反射光束沿着同一轴传播。这意味着对于扫描高纵横比特征,与使用三角测量技术进行扫描相比,角部遮挡没有或很少。

Wide range of applications

广泛的应用

The BOREINSPECT and TUBEINSPECT systems measure roughness on IDs of:

BOREINSPECT 和 TUBEINSPECT 系统测量以下 ID 的粗糙度:

Automotive power-train components

汽车动力总成部件

Bearings

轴承

Aircraft engine manifolds

飞机发动机歧管

Gun drilled relief valve bores (oil & gas sector)

枪钻安全阀孔(石油和天然气行业)

Medical devices

医疗器械

Barrels

etc.

等等

BOREINSPECT 3D metrology system rotational probe scanning inside bores in an automotive valve body

BOREINSPECT 3D 测量系统旋转探头扫描汽车阀体内孔

Which system is appropriate for my ID roughness application?

哪种系统适合我内径粗糙度应用?

Both the BOREINSPECT and TUBEINSPECT are off-the-shelf 3D metrology systems that come equipped with an optical probe selected for the application.

BOREINSPECT和TUBEINSPECT都是现成的3D计量系统,配备了为应用选择的光学探头。

When choosing between the two systems, here are some general points of consideration:

在这两个系统之间进行选择时,需要考虑以下几点

Only the TUBEINSPECT can measure both the ID
and
OD of t
ubular parts

只有TUBEINSPECT可以同时测量管状零件的内径和外径

Only the BOREINSPECT rotational scanner probe can be used as a robot end-effector; but both systems can have robots present the measured parts to them

只有BOREINSPECT旋转扫描探头可以用作机器人末端执行器;但是两个系统都可以让机器人将测量的零件呈现给他们

If the part measured cannot be placed on a rotational stage, then BOREINSPECT is the answer.

如果测量的零件不能放在旋转台上,那么BOREINSPECT就是答案。


文件:AN-THICKNESS-1.22021-06-03

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